Sikh Research and Education Center
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JUP is rightly considered as the quintessence of the Sikh Teachings,
and that the rest of the Scripture is an exposition and amplification of
it. In the Mool Mantra, the Guru defines God as - "One Supreme Being pervades
everywhere, Who ever remains consistent and Unchanging. Eternal in His
manifestation, Creator of all and everything, Himself abiding in all things,
Without Fear and Hate, Timeless Form ever in Bliss, Unincarnated (Not a
creature to be born and die), Self Existent, realized by reflecting our
mind on His Light in us by His Grace." In the Prologue to "JUP", it is
stated: "In the beginning He was the veritable Reality; He was present
in all times. Nothing is Real but the Eternal Lord; Nothing shall last
but the Eternal Lord."
There are Three Basic Principles on which these Teachings are laid -
(1) There is One God, Who is Eternal, the Creator of all and everything. His Existence is from Himself. There is None beside Him. All the creation has come from Him alone. God is the Creator, and ever creates more and more. His Expanse has no limitations. It is so staggering, one is bewildered and perplexed even to think of His Vastness. THERE IS THUS ONLY ONE REALITY. THE MYRIAD OF FORCES THAT EMANATED FROM HIM, HAVE NO INDEPENDENT EXISTENCE. WE THUS COME TO THE CONCLUSION THAT GOD IS THE ONLY REALITY, WHO IS INFINITELY INFINITE, AND IS CREATIVE.
(2) Adjustment to the Will of God. Man is crown of God's creation, who has been given distinct separate individuality, has the basic needs to be fulfilled, to enable him to exist. There are the myriad forces of Nature that exist, which are for his sustenance. The uncertainties of life makes man selfish in pursuit of his needs, and begins to consider that acquisition of these things are the end all of his life. This creates the Wall of Falsehood in Man, which makes him Selfish and makes him an evil doer, thus separates him from his Source, God. How this Wall of Falsehood can be demolished and man can become Truthful and be one with his Source, God? The answer given is to live with God, Who is manifest everywhere and in each of the living beings. God is present within all, as His Light shines in all, which gives them the life. There is no difference in Qualities, between the Absolute God and His Light, which shines in all creatures. Man by reflecting his self (mind) in love and devotion on His Light within him, and by adjusting his self with His Commands or Will, and acting accordingly, become One with God, from Whom he has been separated. ACCEPTANCE OF HIS WILL CHEERFULLY IN ALL WALKS OF HUMAN LIFE, IS THE KEY FACTOR FOR MAN'S REDEMPTION FROM HIS VARIED ENTANGLEMENTS AND TO GET UNITED WITH GOD, HIS SOURCE.
(3) Life of Independence - Freedom from All Attachments - Total Reliance on God, Who is his Real Self. God after the act of creation, remains unaffected from the effect of Matter (Maya) and continues to be Immaculate. He does not take birth or die. His Light is present everywhere and in all equally. Like Absolute God, His Light though present in all living beings, remains aloof or detached from the effect of the emotional life of the creatures. Man is similarly, required while living in the world of Matter, work for his own livelihood and not lean on others for physical needs. He should lead an independent life totally attuned with his Creator, thus rising above all types of prejudices. This part of the Teachings mean -
(a) A renewed birth with Divine heritage - a new birth every-day in
union with God.
(b) A desire for more vigorous independent mode of life, with creative activity.
(c) To abjure the ascetic way of inertia and inactivity and to have a positive view of life.
(d) Forsaking of dependency of all types.
The Guru in the First Pauri, gives the different approaches that were followed to become truthful, which he did not agree. Then he himself poses the question how the wall of falsehood, separating us from God can be demolished. He immediately gives the answer that man can lead a truthful and contented life, if he adjusts himself to His Commands, which are ingrained within us.
Pauris 2 - 4
The Guru states that He is Infinite and so is His Will INFINITE AND UNFATHOMABLE, therefore, cannot be described. Every one and everything proceeds from His Will only. No one is beyond the pale of His Will. All the Creation is managed through His Ordinance. He is Eternal and so are His Laws. His Language is Love. Love of His Name is the Gift, He bestows in His Mercy to the creatures for union with Him. In this way the wall of Falsehood in them is demolished. (No one can boast of his cleverness to manage his own affairs to his satisfaction. (Pointing to the Reality Principle).
God cannot be confined to any limitations, as He is Infinite Spirit. He, therefore, cannot be made and set up as an image. He is all in all Himself and is Not affected by material conditions, He created. The only way to meet with Him is to establish spiritual union, by hearing and singing His eulogies in complete love and devotion. Those Who obey His Commands serve Him and love Him. Man should reflect his mind on His Light in him, called "Guru or the Divine Teacher". From the Guru's Word, wisdom is attained to feel His presence everywhere. The Guru is everything; gods Brahma, Shiva, Vishnu and goddess Parbati, are only His creatures and have no independent existence. It is through the Guru (His Light in us) we come to know that that there is only One Benefactor of all creatures, Whom we should not forget. (Pointing to the Reality Principle).
Pauris 6 and 7
Mind is not cleansed by taking bath at holy places. If one were to listen to a Word of Wisdom of the Guru (God's Light in Man), then alone his mind will be enriched with gems, jewels and rubies like thoughts. Also, by adoption of yogic techniques one may prolong his life, win the praise and popularity of the people and so on, it will not be of any avail, if Truth is not imbibed within himself and is not approved by God. He will be like the most worthless of men, not cared for by any one, as lowest of the most insignificant worms. (Pointing to the Reality Principle).
Pauris 8 - 11
God's Name and His eulogies bring about the knowledge of the Universe and the Self in Man. His thinking is purified and all the sorrows and sins are eliminated. The misguided ones are also set on the Path to righteousness. By hearing His Name one is ever in a state of Bliss, and attains to exalted status of being a Sidh, Nath, Pir, Shiva, Brahma, Indira, Shaikh Monarch and so on. (Pointing to the Reality Principle).
Pauris 12 - 15
The Lord though present in each of the creatures, yet He is not affected by the emotional life of the created things, remains aloof. The one, who follows God's instructions and acts on them, is the most exalted one. His knowledge is further strengthened and he finds no obstruction in his way to spiritual upliftment He is greatly honored in the Court of God. He always takes to the righteous Path and never defects. Such a person does not involve in sectarian rituals, but establishes relationship with True Religion. He not only himself is saved but also enlightens others. Such a man of action is never in want of material things. (Adjustment to His Will).
By hearing and practicing God's Name, Divine Conscience (Panch) is evolved. Such exalted persons are honored in the Court of God. This does not mean that the Blessed Man would know the extant of his creation. Certain religious books state that there is a bull underneath, who is carrying the load of the Earth. Guru Nanak states that God's established Law is the Dharma or the mythical Bull. It is God, Who is keeping the Earth in its place. The Dharma is the off spring of Compassion. It means God out of Compassion created Earth and it is Dharma through Contentment creates Harmony. One's mind is illumined by His light. The belief that a bull is carrying the load of Earth, cannot be accepted, for there are the worlds over worlds, below this world and beyond it. Then who is there to support the structure from the under-world? It is God, who is the Support. How God created the Universe? He uttered One Word, and with it, the whole of the creation came into Being with hundreds of thousand of rivers flowing therein. Whatever He Wills is best for us all. ( Adjustment to His Will).
Pauris 17 - 19
The Guru describes the vastness of the varieties of the creation engaged in varied types of religious activities. In Pauri 18, however, the Guru painfully describes the countless fools, thieves, slanderers, usurpers, murderers, and others engaged in unsociable and unlawful activities. Here the Guru in humble words state that he the sinner, Nanak has to give this account for consideration. The Guru never ever claimed his superiority over any one, but always considered himself as the lowliest of the lowly ones. In Pauri 19, while describing the infinitude of His creation, the Guru states that in words we make description of Him, while He has no such limitations. Those who describe His creation as "countless", feel guilty that they have said much less. He is beyond description. The Guru in each of these Pauris makes the supplication to Him that he feels himself to be unworthy to be a sacrifice even once to Him. He is Formless, Immaculate and Eternal. Whatever He wills that is best for us all. (Preaches adjustment to His Will).
Pauris 20 -27
The dirt of mind cannot be removed by washing the body. This theme has been dealt with in Pauris 2 and 6, and also in Pauri 20. Mind can be cleansed by loving Truth (God) alone. In Pauri 20 the Guru also warns that the effect of evil deeds performed gets engraved on the slate of mind, which is carried forward. Therefore. the dictum, what one sows, he himself reaps its effect. In Pauri 21 the Guru also states that the pious deeds of visiting holy places, making austerities, alms giving as a ritual do not carry forward to the spiritual journey of man. Love of God's Name is of paramount importance. The Guru again in the later half of this Pauri takes up the question of futile explorations made by certain religious leaders about the expanse of the Cosmos, as to when it came into existence, which none could tell. In Pauri 22 he states that the Vedic explorers became weary in such a meaningless pursuit, while the Semitic Scriptures give 18,000 worlds to have been created by God. The Guru says that such an account of Semitic religious explorers and the explorations made by the Vedic Rishis were unnecessary. (Such a number has no basis and utterly false.) The Guru says: Call Him Great. He alone knows of Himself - None else. In the estimation of the Guru, a king having as vast an empire as the ocean, possessing mountains of wealth, cannot be compared favorably with an ant, in whose heart dwells the Lord. (Pauri 23) The Guru continues to give the myriad and wonderful things created by Him. He mentions about the unlimited and huge creation of God, the immense space and the planetary system. Despite the vastness of the creation, He looks after the needs and comforts of each living being individually. The Giver gives to the evil and the good alike. There are many fools, who receive in plenty, yet are thankless. There are many who are inflicted with pain and hunger, but the Guru says, these are also gifts from Him, as man is chastised by under-going hardships. The ways of His administration and judgment are wonderful, and so also His forgiveness and mark of His acceptance. The Guru further proceeds to describe the vision of God's greatness. He brings to our imagination the wonderful orders of beings, who stand praising and singing at the gate of His Abode. The Guru teaches that that there is no creature who can reach His glorious Divinity. There is none immortal beside Him. (Mostly this section deals with Freedom from Attachments or prejudices - the Guru exhorts for Independent Thinking. Pauri 27 deals with Adjustment to His Will).
Pauris 28 - 31
This section deals with yogic rituals. The Guru describes the futility of observing rituals and formalism, and also working of miracles by the yogis. He lays stress on spiritual communion with God for union with Him and character building. He also clarifies that worship of gods and goddesses is not fruitful as everything is controlled by God alone. (Freedom from Attachments or prejudices).
Pauris 32 - 33
Mechanically repeated utterances of God's Name is of no use. It
creates a false satisfaction that one has done something, and also strengthens
one's egocentricity. It is the boastful claim of a false man. Union with
Him is possible, if one in complete devotion effaces himself and lovingly
submits to Him. Love for His Name is by His Grace. No one can acquire Divine
Knowledge by his effort and can liberate himself from the worldly entanglements
by his own cleverness. (Freedom from Attachments or prejudices).
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