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About Compilation of Sri Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Amar Das had all the Compositions of Guru Nanak Dev with him
Siri Rag, Majh, Gauri, Asa, Gujri, Vadhans, Sorath, Dhanasari, Tilang, Suhi, Bilawal, Ramkali, Maru, Tukhari, Bhairo, Basant, Sarang, Malar & Parbhati.Out of these 19 Rags, except for Rags, Tilangs and Tukhari, Guru Amar Das wrote his Compositions in 17 Rags. Apart from these 17 Rags he did not write in any other Rag. This commonness of Rags was made possible only when Guru Amar Das had with him the Compositions of Guru Nanak Dev. Otherwise, it was not possible that the choice of Rags by Guru Amar Das was to be the same as that of Guru Nanak Dev. For those who still do not agree that Guru Nanak Dev’s Compositions had reached Guru Amar Das, we shall hereunder give the instances from those 17 Rags of the closeness of the Compositions of the two Gurus.
Guru Nanak Dev
Guru Nanak Dev wrote 17 Astpadis. All have lengthy verses. Out of 17 Asptpadis, 16 have sections of 3 verses, and one consists of sections of 2 verses.
Guru Amar Das wrote 8 Astpadis. All the verses are lengthy. Six Astpadis contain sections of 3 verses, and two have sections of 2 verses. In these also, the verses connected with “Pause” have the same similarity as we noted in Shabads, i.e. in the beginning, the words “bhai re” or “mun re” occur.
The similarity of words “bhai re” is not an ordinary one, In whole of Guru Granth Sahib, there are only 28 such Shabads and Astpadis, in which the verse connected with “Pause”, begins with these words. In Siri Rag alone there are 25 Shabads and Astpadis of this nature.
Out of 17 Astpadis, Guru Nanak Dev used the words, ‘bhai re or mun re’, in 6 Astpadis; while Guru Amar Das, out of 8 Astpadis, used 3 times. If we combine the number for use of these words in both Shabads and Astpadis, then we will have the following data -
Guru Nanak Dev - 9 times.Even this much similarity is enough proof that Guru Nanak’s Composition in Siri Rag was available to Guru Amar Das.
Guru Amar Das - 11 times.
Under this title, Compositions of Guru Nanak Dev, Guru Ram Das and Guru
Arjan Dev are to be found. The length of the verses in all cases is similar.
The subject matter discussed is the same, and also many words used are
the same. This also confirms that Guru Ram Das had the Compositions of
Guru Nanak with him. We have already mentioned about the commonness of
the words used. We give below a section each of the Gurus’ Compositions
in this respect -
Siri Rag Pehre M 1
pehlai peharay raine kai vanjaria mitra, hukam bhia garbas. oradh tap antar karai vanjaria mitra, khasam saiti ardas. khasam saiti ardas vakhanai, oradh dhian liv laga. namrajad aaya kul bhitar, bohar jasi naga. jaisi kalam vorhi hai mastik, taisi jiare pas. koh nanak prani pehlai pehre, hukam bhia garbas. (1)
Siri Rag M 4As we read these two Compositions intently, we shall find a very interesting deep similarity of words used and the ideas expressed. This similarity could not occur accidentally.
pehlai pehre raine kai vanjaraya mitra, har paiya odhar manjhar. har dhiavai har ochrai vanjaria mitra, har har nam smar. har har nam japai aaradhai, vich agni har jap jivia. bahar janam bhia mukh laga, sarsai pita mat thivia. jis ki vast tis chaito prani, kar hirdai gurmukh bichar. koh nanak prani pehlai phrai, har japiye kirpa dhar. (1)
Guru Nanak Dev - 1All Astpadis have the same number of sections. This confirms our conception that Guru Amar Das had with him the Compositions of Guru Nanak Dev, which ultimately reached Guru Arjan Dev. In support of our conception, we give below a section of Astpadi of each of the Gurus -
Guru Amar Das - 32
Guru Ram Das - 1
Guru Arjan Dev - 4
Guru Nanak Dev -
sabad rungai hukam sabai, sachi dargai mehal bolai. sachai deen dayal merai sahiba sachai mun paniavania. (1)
Guru Amar Das -
karam hovai satguru milai, seva surat sabad chit lai. himai mar sada sukh paiya maya moh chukavania. (1)Guru Ram Das -
adi purkh aprampar aapai, aapai thapai thap othapai. sabh mein vartai eiko sohi gurmukh sobha pavania. (1)Guru Arjan Dev -
antar alakh na jahi lakhiya, nam ratan lai guja rakhiya. agam agochar sabh tai oocha gur kai sabad lakhavania. (1)
In Rag Gauri Gurari, please note the length of verses of Shabads of Guru Nanak Dev and Guru Amar Das. The verses are short, like chopai -
Guru Nanak Dev
bho moch bhara vada tol. dar ghar ghar dar dar jaeh. mata mat pita santokh. paonai pani agni ka maile.Guru Amar Das
gur milai har mela hoei. gur tai gyan paye jun koai so thao sach mun nirmal hoai, gavat rehai jeh satgur bhavai. mun marai dhat mar jaeh. sacha amar sacha patsah.In Guarari sub-rag, Guru Amar Das wrote 14 Shabads. All have small verses, like those of Guru Nanak’s Shabads.
In Bairagan sub-rag, Guru Nanak wrote two Shabads, and the verses are long, like couplets, for example -
Guru Nanak Dev and Guru Amar Das wrote Astpadis in Guarari and Bairagan sub-rags of Rag Gauri. Guru Nanak wrote 16 Astpadis and Guru Amar Das 8 in Guarari sub-rags. All the verses are small. There is another important thing to note. Out of 16 Astpadis of Guru Nanak Dev, there are 2 sections of four verses, 9 sections of 3 verses and 5 sections of 2 verses each. In Guru Amar Das’ Compositions there is 1 section of 4 verses, 6 sections of 3 verses and 1 section of 2 verses.
In Bairagan sub-rag, there are 2 Astpadis of Guru Nanak, all the sections are of 2 verses each, and so is the case of 1 Astpadi of Guru Amar Das in this sub-rag.
Guru Nanak Dev has written Chhants under “Poorbi” sub-section, and so did Guru Amar Das. If we compare the Compositions of the Two Gurus, we will find commonness of style and ideas. This will also prove that Guru Amar Das had the Composition of Guru Nanak in his possession.
Guru Nanak Dev - Chhant
(4) RAG ASA
Guru Nanak wrote his Compositions under “Ghar” 2, 3, and 8. The Astpadis under Ghar 3, are very special. In these Astpadis, the Guru described the Sack of Saidpur. The Astpadis under Ghar 2 and 8, as usual deal with the Divine knowledge. Guru Amar Das has also written Astpadis under Ghar 2 and 8. There is, however, special thing about Ghar 8. The Compositions of both Guru Nanak and Guru Amar Das under Ghar 8, have not been composed according to Asa Rag only, but Asa Rag and Kafi have been mixed. Guru Amar Das also did the same thing with Compositions under Ghar 8, which Guru Nanak Dev did. Later Guru Ram Das also did the same thing.
(B) Pati - Alphabetical Hymns
Under this caption, both Guru Nanak and Guru Amar Das wrote their Compositions. Attention is invited to the verse related to portion “Pause” in both the Compositions. This will show the intimate relationship between the two Compositions -
Guru Nanak Dev
mun kahai bhoolai moor muna. jab laikha devai bira tao pariya. Pause.Guru Amar Das
mun aisa liakha tun ki paria, laikha daina terai sir rehia. Pause. .We observe the following similarities in the above Compositions -
Guru Nanak has written Chhants under Ghar 1, 2 and 3. Guru Amar Das wrote Chhants under Ghar 1 and 3. Let us note the language used by both the Gurus in their Compositions under Ghar 1. The first commonness is that in each Chhant, and in every section thereof, the first two verses end with word “ram”. Under Ghar 2 this is not so.
Guru Nanak Dev
Guru Nanak Dev
ham ghar sacha sohilara, prabh aaeiare meeta ram dhan pirye mela hoeh soami, aap prabh kirpa karai. saija sohavi sung pir kai, satsar amrit bhare.Guru Amar Das
ham ghare sacha sohila, sachai sabad sohaiya ram. dhan pir maile bhaiya, prabh aap milaeiya ram. saij sohavi pir ravi, mil pritam avgan nasai.This does not need any explanation, as the two Compositions speak for themselves of their commonness.
NOTE: We are here examining primarily the commonness between the writings of Guru Nanak Dev and Guru Amar Das. However, we may examine here the Compositions of Guru Ram Das also.
Asa Mehla 1 Ghar 1We find repetition of words “anhado anhad” and “mera mun” in the above Composition.
anhado anhad vajai, gunjhunkarai ram, mera muno mera mun rata, lal piyare ram.
Asa Chhant Mehla 4 Ghar 1Guru Ram Das also repeats the words “jivano jivan” and “har namo har nam” as stated above. Also, Guru Nanak states - “merai mun pardesia, kit pavai janjalai ram.” And Guru Ram Das in Ghar 5 states, “merai mun pardesi veh piyare, aao ghare.” There is the use of common words. We have given few example only. The readers can find many more examples by reading the Compositions. It may also be stated that Guru Arjan Dev in his Compositions also repeated the words in the like manner.
jivano mein jivan paiya, gurmukh bhai ram. har namo har nam devai , merai pran vasai ram.
Guru Nanak taught not to indulge in idolatrous practices of worshiping the idols of gods and goddesses, but to meditate on the Infinite Spirit of God. The Guru states -
pooja kichai nam dhiyahiai, bin navai pooj na hoeh. (1) Pause.Guru Amar Das expressed the same views in his 2nd Shabad -
( Worship God, by meditation on His Name, for without the Name, there is no other worship of any avail.)
har ki tum seva karo, dooji seva karo na koeh ji.(B) Astpadis
(You perform the service of God alone, and to none else.)
Guru Nanak Dev and Guru Amar Das, both wrote under Ghar 1. Guru Nanak wrote one more Astpadi under Ghar 4, which is related to Shabad of Sri Jaidev Ji. We shall have discussion on this, when we deal with Compositions of Bhagats.
There are 5 Shabads of Guru Nanak Dev and 4 of Guru Amar Das. In all these Shabads the verses are lengthy and of equal length. We give below the specimens of the verses of each of the two Gurus -
Guru Nanak Dev
sach sarinda sacha janiai, sachra parvadgaro. sachra sahib sach tun sachra deh piaro. Pause.Guru Amar Das
jani vichunre mera maran bhia, dhrig jiwan sansare. juman marn vada vaichora, binsai binsai jag sabai.
sachra sahib sabad pachaniai, aapai laye milaye jini chaln sahei janiya, satgur seveh nam smalay sachre aap jagat upaeiya, gur bin ghor andharo.
roveh piroe vichuniya, mein pir sachra hai sada nalai.
Guru Nanak wrote 11 Shabads under Ghar 1. Although all are classified under “Chopadai - having 4 sections”, yet out of them 2 have five sections. All the Shabads have lengthy verses, for example -
sabhna marna aaiya, vaichora sabhna...There is only one Shabad of short verses, which is under Ghar 3. This Shabad is a special one, in relation to Bhagat Namdev’s Composition. This will be discussed when we deal with Compositions of Bhagats.
mun hali kirsani karni, saram pani tun khet...
mai baap ko baita nika, susre chater javaei...
hon papi patat parm pakhandi, tu nirmal nirankari...
Guru Amar Das wrote 12 Shabads, which are all under Ghar 1. The verses are lengthy, for example -
sevak sev kare sabh teri, jin sabdai sad aaeiya...The numbers of sections of Guru Nanak Dev’s Shabads are given below -
har jio tudh noo sada salahiye piyare, jichar ghat antar hai sasa...
3 sections - 2The number of sections in Guru Amar Das’ Shabads are as under -
4 sections - 1
2 sections - 8
3 sections - 6Now note the verses related to “Pause” in the Shabads -
4 sections - 1
2 sections - 5
Guru Nanak Dev
mun re ram nam jas leh. mun re thir roh mat kat jaei jio.Guru Amar Das
mun re samajh kavan mat laga. mun re ram japo sukh hoei.
mun merai gursabdi har paiya jaei. mun merai har jio sada smal.Note: This similarity also exists in the Shabads of Guru Ram Das.
mun re har har saiti liv laye. mun re treh gun chod chauthai liv laye.
Guru Nanak Dev - of 3 verses, Ghar 1
asa munsa bandhni bhai, karam dharam bandhkari.- of 2 verses, Ghar 1
tu gundato nirmalo bhai, nirmal na mun hoeh.Guru Amar Das - of three verses, Ghar 1
bhagta di sada tu rakhda har jio, dhur tu rukhda aaiiya.- of 2 verses, Ghar 1
nirgunya nu aapai bakhas lai bhaei, satgur ki seva laye.The Astpadies composed by both, Guru Nanak Dev and Guru Amar Das have lengthy verses, like couplets.
Guru Nanak composed 5 Shabads under Ghar 2. Out of these, 4 Shabads have 4 sections each, and one Shabad has 5 sections.. Guru Amar Das has also written 8 Shabads under Ghar 2, and all have four sections. The verses in all these compositions are short, like “chopai”, for example -
Guru Nanak Dev -
kion simri sivaria nihin jaey.Guru Amar Das -
jio tapat hai baro bar...
nadar karai ta simarya jaeh.
sai dhanwant har nam liv laeh...(B) Chhant
sada dhan antar nam smalay...
kacha dhan sancheh moorakh gavar...
Note: There are no Astpadis and Chhants of Guru Amar Das in Dhanasari Rag. We shall compare the Chhants of Guru Ram Das with those of Guru Nanak Dev.
Guru Nanak Dev -
jiva terai naey mun anand hai jio...Guru Ram Das -
sacho sacha nao gun gobind hai jio...
tum sar avar na koeh aaiya jaeisi jio...
hukmi hoeh nabir bharam chokaeisi jio...
har jio kirpa karai ta nam dhiaei jio...In the Compositions of both the Gurus, at the end of first two verses of every section , the word “jio” occurs.
satgur milai sobhaeh sehaj gun gaeiai jio...
andar sacha neh poorai satgurai jio...
hon tis sevi din rat mein kadai na visarai jio...
There are 5 Shabads of Guru Nanak Dev. The 5th Shabad deals with invasion of India by Babar and Sack of Saidpur.
Guru Nanak -
jaisi mein aavai khasam ki bani, taisra kari gian veh lalo...On reading the Shabad of Guru Nanak, one is very much terrified, and his mind is shaken. By reading the very next Shabad of Guru Ram Das, the mind is greatly consoled, wherein God’s protection to His devotees is re-assured. Guru Ram Das’ Shabad reads -
kaya kapar tuk tuk hosi, hindustan smalsi bola.
sab aaei hukam khasmah, hukam sab vartani. sach sahib sacha khail, sab har dhani.It is clearly observed that Guru Ram Das had with him, the Shabad of Guru Nanak Dev dealing with Sack of Saidpur and the General Massacre there.
(B) At the end of Shabad of Guru Arjan Dev, one Shabad of Guru Nanak Dev under Ghar 2 is given. No speical heading has been given to this Shabad. Below this Shabad is given the Shabad of Guru Ram Das - page 725 of Guru Granth Sahib refers. The readers are requested to read the verses of these two Shabads, which are related to their respective “Pause” portion. They read as under -
Guru Nanak Dev -
raeisa piyare ka raeisa, jit sada sukh hoei. Pause.Guru Ram Das -
aaei mil gursikh aaei mil, tun merai guru kai piyare. Pause.In the above said Shabads, there is only one verse related to “Pause” section. Let us now examine the similar flow of these two Shabads -
Guru Nanak Dev -
jin kia tin dekhia, kia kehai re bhai.Guru Ram Das -
aapai janai karai aap, jin vari hai laei.
har kia katha kahania, gur meet sunaeiya.Without fear and favour we can declare that Guru Ram Das had in his possession the Compositions written by Guru Nanak Dev in Tilang Rag. From where he obtained it? He got it from Guru Amar Das.
balhari gur aapnai, gur ko bal jaeiya.
NOTE: Guru Amar Das did not write any Shabad in this Rag. We shall compare the Compositions of Guru Ram Das with Guru Nanak Dev, and will show that Guru Ram Das had in his possession the Compositions of Guru Nanak.
Guru Nanak wrote Shabads under Ghar 1, 2. 6 and 7, and the same is the case of Guru Ram Das. This similarity did not take place as a matter of chance.
Guru Nanak Dev’s all the Shabads under Ghar 1, 6 and 7, contain lengthy verses like couplets, and the same is true of the Compositions of Guru Ram Das.
Guru Nanak Dev, under Ghar 1
bhanda dhoai bais dhoop devo, tao doodhai ko javo.Guru Nanak, under Ghar 6
ujjal kaiha chilkana, ghotam kalri mus ...Guru Nanak, under Ghar 7
jup tap ka bundh bairla, jit lunghey vehela...
(Here only these two Shabads have little smaller verses)
jog na khinta, jog na dundai, jog na bhasam charaeiai...Guru Ram Das Ghar 1
kon taraji kavan tula, tera kavan saraf bulava...
mun ram nam aradhiya, gur sabad gur kai...Guru Ram Das Ghar 6
har har nam bhajio purkhotam, sabh binsai dalid dalgha ...
nich jat har japtia, uttam padvi pai...Guru Ram Das Ghar 7
jini antar har aradhiya, jin ko dhur likhiya likhat lelara...
terai kavan kavan gun keh keh gava, tun sahib guni nidhana...Under Ghar 2, the verses of the Shabads of both the Gurus, are short, like “chopai”, and each section is of 2 verses, for example -
jin kai antar vasiya mera har har, tin kai sabh rog gavaeh...
Guru Nanak Ghar 2
antar vasai na bahar jai...Guru Ram Das Ghar 2
gurmat nagri khoj khojaei...Who can deny that Guru Ram Das had with him the Compositions of Guru Nanak?
har kirpa karai mun har rung laye...
jehva har ras rehi aghai...
(B) Astpadis - Guru Nanak wrote Astpadis under Ghar 1, 9 and 10, while Guru Amar Das composed under Ghar 1 and 10.
(C) CHHANT In the Chhants written by Guru Nanak Dev under Ghar 2, the first two verses of every section of the Chhant, are short, and the remaining are lengthy. The same is the nature of Chhants written by Guru Amar Das. Under Ghar 2, both the Gurus wrote one Chhant each.
Guru Nanak Dev
ham ghar sajjan aaeiy, sachai mail milai.Guru Amar Das
sehaj milai har mun bhai, pach milai sukh paiya.
sukh sohailra har dhiavo. gurmukh har phal pavo.In Chhants under Ghar 3, at the end of the first two verses of each section, word “ram” is there.
gurmukh phal pavo har nam dhiavo, janam janam kai dookh nivarai.
Guru Nanak Dev Ghar 3
aavo sajna hon dekha darsan tera ram.Guru Amar Das Ghar 3
ghar aapnarai khari takan, mein mun chao ghanera ram.
bhagat jana ki har jio rakhai, jug jug rakhda aaiya ram.In these Chhants, there is a great commonness of the words used, such as - Guru Nanak Dev - var paeiara balriai, asa munsa poori ram. Guru Amar Das - pir paiara balriai, andin sehjai mati ram.
so bhagat jo gurmukh hovai, homai sabad jalaya ram.
NOTE: This commonness of words used also exists in the Chhants of Guru Ram Das and Guru Arjan Dev. Also first two verses of a section are small and the third is lengthy.
Guru Ram Das Ghar 2:
gurmukh har gun gai, hirday rasan rasai har rasan rasai, merai prabh bhai, milia seaj sobhai.Guru Arjan Dev Ghar 2
gobind gun gavan lagai. har rung andin jagai. har rung jagai pap bhagai, milai sant piyaria.At the end of first two verses, appear the word “ram” -
Guru Ram Das Ghar 3
aavo sant jano, gun gavo gobind kaire ram. gurmukh mil rehai, har vajai sabad ghanere ram.Guru Arjan Dev Ghar 3
tu thakro bairagro, mein jehi ghan cheri ram. tu sagro ratanagro, hon sar na jana teri ram.There is one Chhant each of Guru Nanak Dev and Guru Amar Das under Ghar 2. Similarly there is one Chhant each of Guru Ram Das and Guru Arjan Dev under Ghar 2.
Guru Nanak Dev Ghar 10
nikat vasai dekhai sabh sohi., gurmukh virla boojai koei.Guru Amar Das Ghar 10
mun ka kehia munsa karai. eih mun pun pap ochrai.
jag kavoa mukh chunch gian. antar lobh jhooth abhimanThere is also some commonness of the words used. We therefore, come to the conclusion that the Astpadis of Guru Nanak were available with Guru Amar Das. For example -
bin navai paj lehag nidhan.
Guru Nanak Dev - dooji durmat dard na jaeh, chootai gurmukh daroo gun gai.(B) Special Compositions. In this Rag, Guru Nanak Dev’s Special Composition is “Thithi - Auspicious Timing”. Guru Amar Das also wrote a Special Composition, called “Var Sut”. Both the Compositions are under Ghar 10. Also, in both of them, the verses are short.
Guru Amar Das - satgur seviai dooji durmat jaei.
Guru Nanak Dev - eikam eikamkar nirala, amar ajoni jat na jala.In both the Compositions, the verses connected with “Pause”, convey the same idea, in that “jap japo - repeated remembrance” and “japni japo - repetition of Name”.
Guru Amar Das - aaditvar adi purkh hai soei. aapai vartai avar na koei.
Guru Nanak Dev - kia jap japo bin jagdesai, gur kai sabad mehal ghar desai. PauseHere we find another similarity. The heading of Guru Amar Das’ Composition is “Var Sut”. It was natural that the Guru would have made mention of the Seven Days of week. This had no relation with “Thithi - Auspicious Timing”. But Guru Amar Das also used the word “thith”. This shows that he had with him the Compositions of Guru Nanak. Guru Amar Das writes -
Guru Amar Das - hirday japni japo guntasa, har agam agochar aprampar ` soami. jan pag lug dhiavo hoai dasan dasa. Pause.
pandra thithi tai sut var. maha ruti aaveh var var 10.1.And also -
thithi var sabh sabad sohaeh, satgur sevai ta phal paye. 72.
(B). Astpadis. There are 9 Astpadis of Guru Nanak Dev and 5 of Guru Amar Das. “Ghar” has not been given to these Astpadis. The same words have been used by Guru Amar Das at many places, which were used by Guru Nanak Dev. This alone confirms our assertion that Guru Amar Das had with him the Compositions of Guru Nanak Dev. Following examples are given -
Guru Nanak Dev -
gurmukh kaiti sabad odhari santo. Pause.Guru Amar Das -
santo gurmukh poora paei, namo pooj karaei. Pause.Guru Nanak Dev -
rav sus lokai eh tan kingri, vajai sabad nirari. 7.9Guru Amar Das -
bho bhao pat laeh jogi, eh sarir kar dandi. gurmukh hoveh ta tanti vajai, ein bidh trisna khandi. 5.1.Guru Nanak Dev -
siv nagri meh aasan aoodho, alakh agam apari. 9.9Guru Amar Das -
siv nagri meh aasan baisai, gur sabdi jog paei. 11.2Readers are requested to read first Astpadis 8 and 9 of Guru Nanak Dev, then read Guru Amar Das’ Astpadis 2 - 5; it will be observed that all these contain one versed sections. Please note the verses of these Astpadis of Guru Amar Das, related to “Pause” . Then compare these verses with the verse related to “Pause”, of Astpadi 9 of Guru Nanak. Dev. What a similarity!!
Guru Amar Das -
santo gurmukh deh vadyaei. Pause.Guru Nanak Dev -
santo gurmukh poora paei. Pause.
santo gurmukh nam nistari. Pause
santo gurmukh mukat gat paei. Pause.
gurmukh kaiti sabad odhari santo. Pause.
Let us examine the construction of these Sohile. In each Sohila and in each of its sections, the first two verses are short, and the third verse is lengthy.
Guru Nanak Dev -
sacha sach soei, avar na koei. jin sirji tin hi phun goei. jio bhavai tio rakho rehna, tum sion kia mukraei hai. (1)Guru Amar Das -
hukmi sehjai sirist opaei. kar kar vaikhai apni vadyaei aapai kareh karai aapai, hukmai rehia smaei hai. (1)Guru Ram Das -
sacha aap savaranhara, avar na soojas biji kara gurmukh sach vasai ghat antar, sehjai sach smaei hai. 1.Guru Arjan Dev -
kla opai dhari jin dharna, gagan rehaya hukmai charna. agan opai eidhan meh badhi, so prabh rakhai bhaei hai. 1Now let us examine the verses in the Compositions of all the Four Gurus, each Sohila with its 16 sections.
Guru Nanak Dev divided his 22 Sohile in the following five categories -
From 1 - 6 “Vadayei hai” - O Your Greatness.
nanak neech bhikhiya dar jachai, so deejai nam vadayei hai. 6.From 7 - 12 “Taran hara hai”, “patsaha hai”
nanak nam japo tar tari, sach tare taranhara hai. (7)From 13 - 17 “Smaeida”
And nanak sach milai pat rakho, tu sir saha patsaha hai. (12)
nanak nirmal nad sabad dhun, sach ramai nam smaeida. (17)From 18 -22 “Lakhaeiya”
nanak atam ram sabaeiya, gur satgur alakh lakhaeiya. (22)On the basis of the verses in Sohile, the 4 Sohile composed by Guru Amar Das, have been divided into four categories We shall see, whether the verses are similar to the ones quoted above of Guru Nanak Dev. If the verses are similarly divided, then this similarity has not taken place by chance.
Guru Amar Das - 1 - 9 “Paei hae”
nanak das kehai bainunti, bhikhiya nam dar paei hae. (1)From 10 -14 “samah hae”
nanak sach kehai bainunti, sach devo sach samah hae (10)From 15 - 22 “smaeida”
nanak nam ratai vichari, namai nam smaeida. (15)23 and 24 “smaeiya”
nanak eik kehai bainunti, namai nam smaeiya. (23)In a similar way are the Sohile of Guru Ram Das and Guru Arjan Dev.
Guru Amar Das wrote 10 Shabads under Ghar 1. They are all of four sections, and the verses are short, and every section consists of 2 verses.
Guru Nanak Dev -
tuj tai bahar kachoo na hoae.Guru Amar Das -
jat ka garab na kario koei. ja kao rakhai apni sarnaei ram nam jagat nistara(2) Under Ghar 2, Guru Nanak wrote 7 Shabads. Out of them, 6 have four sections and one has 5 sections. The verses are lengthy.
Under Ghar 2, Guru Amar Das wrote 11 Shabads. Out of them, 8 have 4 sections and 3 have 5 sections,. Except one Shabad of 5 sections, all other Shabads have long verses.
Shabads of both, Guru Nanak Dev and Guru Amar Das, under Ghar 2, have commonness of words used to a large extent, for example -
Guru Nanak - nam bina jag rog baiapiya, dubdha dub dub mariai. Guru Amar Das - dubdha manmukh rog vaiapai trisna jaleh adhkari. Guru Nanak - bhojal bin sabdai kion tareiai. Guru Amar Das - homai rogi jagat opaiya, bin sabdai rog na jaei. Guru Nanak Dev - gur kai sabad tarai mun kaitai, indradik brahamadi tarai.. Guru Amar Das - simrat sastar pareh mun kaitai, jin sabdai surat na paei.
NOTE: Guru Amar Das wrote Sabads under Ghar 1 and 2 only.
(B) Astpadis. Guru Nanak Dev wrote 1 Astpadi only under Ghar 2, and Guru Amar Das 2 Astpadis under Ghar 2. Guru Arjan Dev also wrote Astpadis under Ghar 2.
Guru Amar Das has a separate group of 17 Sabads under Ghar 1, in addition to the two Shabads with the Shabads of Guru Nanak Dev. To understand this secret, readers are requested to read Guru Nanak Dev’s Shabad No 3 with the next Shabad of Guru Amar Das, and also Guru Nanak Dev’s Shabad No 7 with the next Shabad of Guru Amar Das. We find close similarity between the Compositions of the two Gurus. This will clearly prove that Guru Amar Das had in his possession the Compositions of Guru Nanak Dev.
(2) There is another sub-rag, called Basant Handol. Under this sub-rag and under Ghar 2, there is one Shabad of Guru Nanak Dev - Mehla 1, Basant Handol Ghar 2
Similarly there is one Shabad of Guru Amar Das, under Ghar 2 - Basant Handol Mehla 3, Ghar 2.
NOTE: Similar Shabads of Guru Ram Das and Guru Arjan Dev appear.
(B) Astpadis No Astpadi was written by Guru Amar Das. However Astpadis of Guru Nanak Dev and Guru Ram Das appear under Ghar 2.
Basant Mehla 1But in Rag Sarang, something new has been observed, that in Guru Nanak Dev’s all the Shabads, the verses related to “Pause” appear in the beginning, for example -
salagram bip pooj manavo, sukrit tulsi mala ram nam jap baira bandho, daya karo dayala (1)
kahai kalra sincho janam gavavo, kachi dheg diwal kahai gach lavo. ( Pause.)
Sarang Mehla 1There is no Shabad of Guru Amar Das in this Rag. There are 3 Shabads of Guru Nanak Dev under Ghar 1. Guru Ram Das and Guru Arjan have the following Shabads -
apnai thakur ki hon cheri. charan gehai jag jiwan prabh kai, homai mar nibairi. (Pause)
pooran parm jot parmesar, pritam pran hamarai. mohan mohe lia mun mera, samjhas sabad bicharai. (1)
Guru Ram Das
Ghar 1 - 6Guru Arjan Dev
Ghar 2 - 1
Ghar 5 - 6
Ghar 1 - 14Grand total of Shabads in Rag Sarang (less of Guru Tegh Bahadur) - 155 In all these Shabads, the verses related to “Pause” come first. This commonness in the construction of the Compositions alone, speaks much about the planning of their Compositions in close co-operation.
Ghar 2 - 5
Ghar 3 - 4
Ghar 4 - 105
Ghar 5 - 1
Ghar 6 - 13
(B) Astpadis: There are 2 Astpadis of Guru Nanak Dev, which are under Ghar 1. The verses related to “Pause” like in Shabads, come first of all.
There are 3 Astpadis of Guru Amar Das, all the 3 are under Ghar 3. In these also the verses related to “Pause” come first. The same is true of the Astpadies of Guru Arjan Dev.
The commonness of words used confirm our view point, for example -
Guru Nanak Dev - har bin kion jivan meri maei.
Guru Amar Das - har bin avar na jana koei.
Guru Nanak Dev - kot kalp kai dookh binasan.
Guru Amar Das - kot kotantar kai pap binasan.
Guru Amar Das wrote 9 Shabads under Ghar 1, 8 have four sections and 1 has 5 sections. Except for one Shabad, all have long verses.
Under Ghar 2, Guru Nanak wrote 4 Shabads, which have 4 sections each. The verses are short. Guru Amar Das also wrote 4 Shabads under Ghar 2, 2 have 4 sections and 2 have 5 sections each. In all cases the verses are short. The first Shabad of both Guru Nanak Dev and Guru Amar Das, needs special attention, as they both give an account of some Pandit.
(B) Astpadis: Under Ghar 1, Guru Nanak wrote 3 Astpadis, which have long verses. Guru Amar Das composed 2 Astpadis, which too have lengthy verses.
Under Ghar 2, Guru Nanak had 2 Astpadis, the first one has mixed type of verses, short as well as long. The 2nd Astpadi has short verses. Guru Amar Das composed only 1 Astpadi, the verses of which are short.
Guru Nanak Dev also mixed Parbhati Rag with “Bibas”. Guru Amar Das, wrote Shabads under Parbhati Rag only. In writing Astpadis, the Guru, however mixed Parbhati Rag with Bibas.
From the above it is inferred that Guru Amar Das had in his possession, not only Compositions of Guru Nanak, but also the Compositions of Bhagats. It was, therefore, that he used pure Parbhati Rag as well as mixed Parbhati and Bibas. It is entirely upto the composer to use only Parbhati Rag or mix Parbhati Rag with Bibas.
Now we shall quote references from the Sloks (short stanzas) of Guru Nanak Dev, wherever we find they bear relationship to the Compositions of Guru Amar Das. We consider that as the Sloks of Guru Nanak Dev were available with him, it was this invaluable possession, which induced him to write the Sloks too. Let us watch the subject matter of the Sloks, at places we shall see the commonness in words used.
(1) Guru Nanak Dev
mool rehai gur seveiai, gur pauri bohith. nanak lagi tat lai , tu sacha mun sach. 1.1Guru Amar Das
haiko padhar haik dar gur pouri nij than. rooro thakur nanaka, sabh sukh sacho nam. 2.1. (from Kanre ki Var)In both of the above Compositions, the idea given in Pauri 32 of Jap Ji , “ait rahe pat pavrian, charai hoey eikis” has been given. (Union with God is by becoming one with Him - complete effacement of one’s ego).
(2) Guru Nanak Dev
sach vart, santokh tirath, gian dhian eisnan. daya devta khima japmali, tai manas pardhan. jugat dhoti, surat choka, tilak karni hoeh. bhao bhojan nanaka, virla tai koei koeh. (1)Guru Amar Das
nomi naim sach jo karai, kam karodh trisna ochrai. dasmi dasai doar jo thakai, eikadsi eik kar janai. doadsi panch vasgat kar rakhai, tao nanak mun manai. aisa vart rehijai pandai, hor boit sikh kia dijai. 2.21 (Sarang ki Var)(3) Guru Nanak Dev
sooa rung supnai nisi, bin tagai gal har. sacha rung majith ka, gurmukh braham bichar. nanak prem maha rusi, sabh buraaeiya char. (2)Guru Amar Das
sooai vais kaman kolakhni, jo prabh chod par purakh dhare piyar.......... jis poorab hovai likhiya, tis satgur milai bhatar. ...... nanak gurmukh sada sohagni, jis avnasi purkh bhatar. 1.4. (Suhi ki Var)(4) Guru Nanak Dev
kal kati rajai kasaei, dharam punkh kar oodarya. koor amavas sach chandrama, deesai nahi keh chariya. hon bhal vakuni hoei, andherai rah na koei vich homai kar dukh rohi. koh nanak kin bidh gat hoei. (1)Guru Amar Das
kal kirat pargat chanan sansar. gurmukh koei utrai par. jis nu nadar karai tis devai nanak gurmukh ratan so laivai. 2.16. (Majh ki Var)(5) NOTE: Guru Arjan Dev, at the time of compilation of Sri Guru Granth Sahib, included in the Holy Book the Vars and attached Sloks with the Pauris of Vars. The Sloks left over, were included at the end of the Holy Book. The Sloks were inserted in the order of Mehla 1, Mehla 3, Mehla 4, and Mehla 5. Under Mehla 1, there are 33 Sloks, and under Mehla 3, there are 67. But with Slok No 27, under Mehla 1, was put a Slok, Mehla 3. Why this Slok No 28 of Guru Amar Das was not put with the other Sloks under Mehla 3?. By reading both the Sloks, it becomes clear to us, that Slok 28 of Guru Amar Das is closely related to Guru Nanak’s Slok 27.
Guru Nanak Dev
lahore sehar jehar kehar sava pehar. 27.Guru Amar Das
(God’s curse is on the city of Lahore for a quarter of the day. This was stated when Babar invaded the city)
lahore sehar amritsar sifti da ghar. 28.This clearly proves that Guru Amar Das had with him the Compositions of Guru Nanak Dev with him.
(Blessed and Meritorious is the city of Lahore, the Pool of Nectar. Guru Amar Das said that the City of Lahore was Blessed and had all the merits, as here Sri Guru Ram Das Ji, the Fourth Nanak, was born.)
Guru Nanak wrote 3 Vars, in Malar Rag, Majh Rag and Asa Rag. Asa di Var, singing of which forms the daily morning service in gurdwaras, is rich in Philosophy of our day to day life. Guru Amar Das, while writing the Vars, kept in view the broad principles laid down in Asa di Var. He wrote 4 Vars, in Gujri Rag, Suhi Rag, Ramkali Rag and Maru Rag. We give below, first the specimen of Asa di Var, and thereafter a specimen from each of the four Vars of Guru Amar Das -
Asa di Var, Mehla 1
aapinay aap sajio, aapinai rachio nao. dooei kudrit sajiai, kar aasan ditho chao. (1)
(He, the Lord, of Himself created Himself, He Himself Assumed the Name. He then created Nature (Universe), Himself abided in it, He revels in His Wonder.)
(1) Gujri ki Var, Mehla 3
aapna aap upaeion, tadon hor na koei.
(The Lord created Himself. There was then no other in existence)
(2) Suhi ki Var, Mehla 3
aapai takhat rachaeion, aakas patala. (1)
(The Lord, of Himself, established His Throne on the Sky and Earth.)
(3) Ramkali ki Var, Mehla 3
sachai takhat rachaiya, baisan ko jaei. (1)
(The True Lord has established The True Throne, and Sits thereon in Command).
(4) Maru ki Var, Mehla 3
sab sacho sach vartda, sach sirjanhara. (1)
(Everywhere the True One Alone prevails, He, Who is the Creator of All)
In Asa di Var each Pauri (stanza) consists of 5 verses, the last one being short. In the 4 Vars of Guru Amar Das also, each Pauri (stanza) consists of 5 verses.
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