Sikh Research and Education Center
655 Old River woods Lane,
About Compilation of Sri Guru Granth Sahib
Inter-relationship of Gurus’ Compositions
“Guru Nanak, when he was a young man of twenty five years, liked to call himself a Poet. He began to compose “Bani” - Holy Word, and continued to do so till his end. The “Bani” he composed, during the course of about forty years, is to be found in Sri Guru Granth Sahib. It is, however, not possible, that the “Bani” thus composed, was not written by the Guru somewhere. Also, the Guru must have first written his Compositions on blank sheets of papers, later would have revised them and written in a book form. The inner construction of “Bani” and many of his life stories, if read intently, lead us to the conclusion that his works in the shape of a book were available with him. The language used is highly scholarly and is sweet, perfect in poetic expression, coherent and consistent in thought and ideology. It depicts glimpses of hard work done with diligence.. The Guru , when alone, used to read and sing his own Compositions. The question arises, where has the book or the writings of the Guru eloped? It is strange, we have preserved the Guru’s shoes, turban and other relics, but the real valuable thing of importance to his memory (Bani), should be wanting! It is still more surprising that we do not even hear of existence of a copy made of the original book After the Guru, his near ones made every thing of his, a source of their sustenance only. What could have been a better source of income, if they had preserved the book of the Guru? Should we take it that after the Guru’s demise, his older son, Baba Sri Chand inherited that book or books? And after the period of 85 years, they were swept away along with Baba Sri Chand by the waters of river Ravi? The Guru, many months before his final departure from Earth, had sent Baba Lehna, after anointing him the successor Guru, to his native village Khadoor, to escape from the opposition he was to encounter. Baba Lehna did not receive the Book of Guru Nanak’s Bani. In case, he had received it, then it would have been eventually passed on to Guru Arjan Dev. But this did not happen.”Sardar Gurbaksh Singh in his article “Search for the Gurus’ Compositions”, began the narration on the correct lines, but soon he lost his way and landed himself in wilderness.
According to G. B. Singh -
The plea of escape from fear of opposition, is most frivolous and undesirable. The Guru had openly criticized Muslim officials, Khatri government servants and their sympathizers, Brahmins many times, and asked them to stop exercising tyranny on the poor people. The Guru pointed out their tyrannical acts as under -
“The man eaters say their prayers (Muslim Nimaz). They who wield the knife wear the sacred thread. In their homes the Brahmins blow the conch for prayers, but they too relish the same tastes............... The sense of shame and honor from them is far removed. Nanak says: it is falsehood that fills them all.”The poor down trodden people, who were in state of slumber, were being awakened by the Guru, who was working to create more of opposition and not for compromising his essentials. His successor was also to impart the same Teachings to the people, and he did that. The successor Gurus established new centers of their activities to impart such Teachings to the people, and not to escape from the fear of opposition.
(Guru Nanak Dev, Slok, Asa di Var, page 471, Guru Granth Sahib)
But what was the opposition for handing over the books by Guru Nanak to Baba Lehna (Guru Angad Dev)? If we accept that Baba Sri Chand received those books, why should he have directed his followers to throw this invaluable treasure of knowledge in the waters of river Ravi along with his body? Baba Sri Chand, in his old age, with great difficulty, came to Amritsar from Barath, district Gurdaspur, to see Guru Ram Das; also, Guru Arjan Dev and Guru Hargobind went especially to Barath to meet with Baba Ji, even then he would make a will to throw that Invaluable Wealth of Knowledge to be thrown in the waters of river Ravi!! This is impossible to believe. THE SIKH HISTORIANS WRITE, THAT WITH A VIEW TO COMPILING GURU GRANTH SAHIB, GURU ARJAN DEV, IN ORDER TO COLLECT ALL THE COMPOSITIONS ISSUED EDICTS TO SIKHS IN ALL PARTS OF THE COUNTRY, WENT HIMSELF TO THE HOUSE OF BABA MOHAN TO GET THE TWO BOOKS. IF GURU NANAK DEV’S BOOKS WERE IN POSSESSION OF BABA SRI CHAND, THEN HOW COME GURU ARJAN DEV REMAINED IGNORANT OF THIS FACT?
It is, therefore, that the Books of Guru Nanak Dev, were never in possession of Baba Sri Chand, and were not thrown in the waters of river Ravi, along with his dead body.
56. Bestowal of Guruship to Guru Angad Dev
Then the Guru came to the banks of the river. Then the Guru offered Five Paise to Guru Angad and bowed at his feet. The members of the family came to know of it and through them the people at large. They realized that the Guru would shortly depart for his Heavenly Abode. People in large number then came to see the Guru - both Hindus and Musalmans - all came ..........
57. Final Departure from Earth
Then the Guru sat under a tree. The tree was completely dry, but turned green. The leaves also appeared. Then Guru Angad fell on his feet. Then Mata Ji (his wife) expressed her utter grief. ......... Then the devotees began singing Shabads - “Alaunia” Then the Guru went into the state of meditation and said prayers by uttering “Baramaha (Twelve Months) in Tukhari Rag. The night turned into the Amrosial Dawn. Finally came the time for the Final Departure.As said by the Guru - THAT BOOK WAS HANDED OVER TO GURU ANGAD.
When Guru Nanak Dev handed over the Book of his Compositions to Guru Angad Dev, then (because this was the Unique Property of Guru Nanak Dev, which he was giving to his Successor) the author of “Puratan Janamsakhi” , stated as under -
Then the Guru’s Two Sons asked him “What will become of us”? Then the Guru said to them, “O My Sons! There will be no dearth of anything even to the dogs of the Guru. There will be plenty of material things available to you. If you will meditate on the All Wise Guru, you will attain life’s aim.”From the above mentioned two episodes in Guru Nanak Dev’s life, we have observed two things -
“Ego is a chronic malady, but within it, also is its remedy. If the Lord be in Grace, one practices the Word of the Guru.”
(Asa di Var, p 467, Guru Granth Sahib)
“In the fourth watch of the early morning, in the mind wells up joy. One associates in the holy assemblage, and utter True Name of God from his mouth”
(Majh ki Var, page 146, Guru Granch Sahib)
“One may try as much as he likes, God cannot be won over, merely by one’s efforts. One wins Him over only if, with an honest mind, one reflects on the Guru’s Word.”
(Suhi ki Var, page 787, Guru Granth Sahib)
“The Knowing Jeweller opened the Purse of Pearls. Both the seeker and the Master, were lost in its wonder.”
(Ramkali ki Var M3, p 954, Guru Granth)
“The Vedas have given currency to the myths that men reflect on sorting out good and evil. Vedas also teach that one takes as much as he gives. Through this “give and take” is man cast into heaven or hell. ,,,,,,”
(Sarang ki Var)
(1) Guru Nanak Dev
bhukia bhukh na utri jeh bana purian bharGuru Angad Dev
By possessing wealth of the world, one’s hunger is not removed. Jap ji.
bhukhia bhukh na utrai, gali bhukh na jahai. nanak bhukha ta rajai, jeh gun keh guni smai.(2) Guru Nanak Dev
The hunger of man is not satiated merely by talking. Nanak says: the hunger of man can be satiated only if he praises the Lord and merges in Him.” Majh ki Var.
amrit vela sach nao,vadaei vichar. karmi aavai kapra, nadri mokh doar. nanak eivai janeai, sabh aapai sachiar.Guru Angad Dev
Meditate in the Praise of the Glorification of Greatness of the True Name of the Lord in the ambrosial morn. This boon is attained through His Grace, and the deliverance is also through His Benediction. Jap Ji
doha sirian aapai khasam, vaikhai kar viopai. nanak eivain janiai, sabh kich tisai rajai. 1.22 Majh ki Var(3) Guru Nanak Dev
He, the Lord Himself is the Judge at both ends, and He Himself decides. Nanak says: know this that all is in His Will.”
chakar lagai chakri, chalai khasmai bhai. humat tis nu agli o vajo bhe doona khai. 22. Asa di Var.Guru Angad Dev
If a servant dedicates himself to the service of the lord, and walks in his will, he gets immense honor and more than his due..
chakar lagai chakri, nalai garab vad. galan karai ghanerian, khasam na paei sad. 1.22 Asa di Var.The above quoted instances are given from Guru Nanak’s Compositions, Jap Ji and Asa di Var. As these Compositions are well known from the time of their inception, and the readers may like to have more of such Compositions. We give following other instances -
If a servant serves the master, but is vain and disputatious. he talks much, and does not get approval of the lord.
(4) Guru Nanak Dev
sbaei salah, jini dhiaya eik mun. saei poorai sah, vakhtai oopar larh mohai .... sabhai vaila vakhat sabh, jo athi bhao hoai. 1.17 Majh ki VarGuru Angad Dev
They who praise the Lord in the early morn, with the single minded devotion, they alone are the kings. They at the right time have grappled (with themselves). ...... If one fears (in love) the Lord, day and night, then all times are sacred for His Worship.
soei poorai sah, jini poora paiya. athi vaiparva, rahin eiktai rung. 2,17. chothai pahar sabha kai, sutian oopjai chao. 1.18 Majh ki Var.(5) Guru Nanak Dev
They alone are the true kings , who have attained to the Perfect Lord. Day and night, they are in ecstasy, imbued with the love of the One alone. 2.17 In the fourth watch of the early morn, they are awakened and in their mind wells up joy.
pehal basatai aagman, pehla molio sohe. jit moliyai sabh moliai, tisai na molio koai. 1.19 Suhi ki Var.Guru Angad Dev
The Spring brought bloom first, but God was in Bloom earlier still. He, through Whom everyone blossoms, needs no one else for Him to flower.
pehal basantai aagman, tis ka karo bichar. nanak so salahiai, jeh sabsai dai adhar. 2.19 Suhi ki Var.NOTE: Presently, the above mentioned two Sloks are to be found attached to Pauri No 19 of Suhi ki Var of Guru Amar Das, in Guru Granth Sahib. In Guru Angad Dev’s time, Suhi ki Var did not exist. The Slok of Guru Nanak Dev was to be found in the Book of Compositions of Guru Nanak Dev, who handed it over to Guru Angad Dev.
He, Who first brought the Spring, reflect your mind on Him. Nanak says: Praise Him, Who brings sustenance to all.
(6) Guru Nanak Dev
jin kiya tin daikhya, kia kehiye rai bhai. aapai janai karai aap, jin vari hai laei.Guru Angad Dev
He, Who created, He sustains. O Brother, what one can say about it. He knows everything and alone is the Doer, Who created all this Expanse.
aapai janai aap, aapai aanai ras. 1.20. Maru ki Var M3.
The Lord alone knows and does, and does it right.
|Previous Chapter - Events from the life history of Guru Nanak Dev|